World Domination... and how to do it

in:

Alfred Mendes has been reading around the subject of recent events in Iraq, Afghanistan and elsewhere. Here's what he found.

 

Capitalism is an economic system in which a comparative few garner profit from the labour of many. It is thus a socio-political system of inherent inequity, with its inevitable corollary - confrontation. It is a system, moreover, which, because of its inbuilt propagation of wealth, is becoming increasingly globalised - hence the current widespread use of the term ‘globalisation’.


In view of the above, it is inevitable that that embodiment of capitalism, America, should find itself increasingly involved in confrontation - leading to armed conflicts around the globe. Indeed, it is the instigator of said conflicts, all entered into under well-camouflaged banners in order not to reveal their true aim: ‘Profit Before All Else’. This implied deception calls for a closer examination of America’s governance - and in particular the modus operandi of its Administration., an unelected body appointed by a President whose election is itself an anomaly, inasmuch as it is really an auction at which the Corporate Establishment ensures that its candidate is elected.


The following examination of the Administration's recent tactics (in the form of excerpted quotes of pertinence - particularly in regard to Afghanistan and Iraq) - is an intriguingly revealing one. And what more appropriate point to start than in Afghanistan, prior to the collapse of the USSR?:



Operation Cyclone

 

“Zbigniew Brzezinski not long ago revealed that on July 3, 1979, unknown to the American public and Congress, President Jimmy Carter secretly authorized $500 million to create an international terrorist movement that would spread Islamic fundamentalism in Central Asia and ‘de-stabilise’ the Soviet Union... The CIA called this Operation Cyclone and in the following years poured $4 billion into setting up Islamic training schools in Pakistan. ..Young zealots were sent to the CIA's spy training camp in Virginia, where future members of al-Qaeda were taught ‘sabotage skills’ - terrorism.” [1]


It would seem from this that the USSR had good reason to invade Afghanistan in December ‘79! ( though it proved to be the final nail hammered by America into its [the Soviet Union’s] financial coffin - with not a little help from Shevardnadse, the USSR’s Foreign Minister at the time of its collapse)



Shock and Awe




“Even as Bush spoke before the joint session of Congress, the Pentagon leaked reports that the U.S. will hit Iraq with up to 800 cruise missiles in two days-”.... “The objective is to ‘shock and awe’, a scheme concocted by military strategist Harlan Ullman” [2]


‘Shock and awe’ is the term the Bush administration uses for its massive hi-tech air strikes on the Iraqis. As a military strategy, it is discussed at length in a 1996 book published by the Command and Control Research Program (CCRP) within the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense of the United States. Titled Shock and Awe: Achieving Rapid Dominance, the book

describes shock and awe as a strategy ‘aimed at influencing the will, perception, and understanding of an adversary rather than simply destroying military capability.’ In this respect, shock and awe bears a striking similarity to terrorism as propaganda, in which psychological rather than material dominance is viewed as a primary war objective. (The terrorist attacks of September 11 also induced ‘shock and awe’ in the U.S. population.)”.. “Like other examples of doublespeak, the concept of ‘shock and awe’ enables its users to symbolically reconcile two contradictory ideas. On the one hand, its theorists use the term to plan massive uses of deadly force. On the other hand, its focus on the psychological effects of that force makes it possible to use the term while distancing audiences from direct contemplation of the human suffering which that force entails.” [3]



What I Didn't Find in Africa, by Ambassador Joseph C. Wilson 4th





“For 23 years, from 1976 to 1998, I was a career foreign service officer and ambassador. In 1990, as chargé d'affaires in Baghdad, I was the last American diplomat to meet with Saddam Hussein.... In February 2002, I was informed by officials at the Central Intelligence Agency that Vice President Dick Cheney's office had questions about a particular intelligence report. I was told that it referred to a memorandum of agreement that documented the sale of uranium yellowcake ... by Niger to Iraq in the late 1990's. The agency officials asked if I would travel to Niger to check out the story so they could provide a response to the vice president's office.. It did not take long to conclude that it was highly doubtful that any such transaction had ever taken place... In early March, I arrived in Washington and promptly provided a detailed briefing to the C.I.A.... If, however, the information was ignored because it did not fit certain preconceptions about Iraq, then a legitimate argument can be made that we went to war under false pretenses.... Then, in January (2003) President Bush, citing the British dossier, repeated the charges about Iraqi efforts to buy uranium from Africa... .(It's worth remembering that in his March [2003]‘Meet the Press’ appearance, Mr. Cheney said that Saddam Hussein was ‘trying once again to produce nuclear

weapons.’)” [4]



“In an interview with NBC television Tuesday, Wilson alleged that press leaks from the White House have attempted to malign him in an effort to dissuade others from speaking out... He said that what he considers ‘the most serious allegation’ appears in US media reports asserting that his wife is a Central Intelligence Agency spy. Wilson said reporters he spoke to about the reports cite ‘senior administration’ officials as their source... He would neither confirm nor deny whether his wife works for the CIA, but said officials in the George W. Bush administration might have violated the law if she is, in fact, a covert US intelligence operative and was exposed

as such by US officials.” [5]



“Ambassador Joseph Wilson.. revealed on Friday August 29 in a symposium in Washington the person in the Bush administration who had leaked it out to the Washington Post that Wilson’s wife is a CIA agent of 26 years. As a consequence of this leak, her entire team of overseas assets were liquidated”... The leaker was none other than Karl H. Rove, Bush’s White House advisor... “When Ambassador Wilson was asked how he knew it was Rove, he had documents in his possession identifying Rove as the leaker from a secret investigation of the State Department’s Internal Security Unit. It was from a small clique, four Clinton holdovers in that department of the State Department that were sympathetic to what had happened to Wilson”. Karl Rove, it turns out, holds dual citizenship of both the US and Germany, and

“is the grandson of Karl Heinz Röverer, the gauleiter of Mecklenburg, who was also a partner and senior engineer of Röverer Sud-Deutche Ingenieurbüro AG... They built Birchenau, the concentration camp in Nazi Germany.” [6]



Iraqi Reconstruction & Development Council





“In late February 2003, the Pentagon established the Iraqi Reconstruction and Development Council (IRDC), made up of Iraqis who would be part of a temporary government after the ousting of the Ba'ath regime. After initially being based in suburban Virginia, its leading members were transported to Baghdad in late April 2003.... Their official task is to rebuild the structures of a government that would then be handed over to the new Iraqi authority. The team is headed by Imad Dhia.... Members of the IRDC are officially employed by a San Diego-based defence contractor, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), whose Vice President until October 2002 was David Kay, the media pundit on Iraq's weapons whose judgements have been shown to be wide of the mark. Kay was co-ordinator of SAIC's homeland security and counterterrorism initiatives.... SAIC also run the Voice of the New Iraq, the radio station established on 15 April 2003 at Umm Qasr that is funded by the US government.. ..Imad Dhia .... is on leave of absence from the Pfizer pharmaceutical company in Ann Arbor, Michigan; he lived in Plymouth, Michigan. Served as the leader of the Iraqi Forum for Democracy (estd 1998), which played a leading role in the State Department's project on the ‘future of Iraq’. Worked with the Pentagon to select other Iraqi members of the ORHA team, many of whom were drawn from his Forum ... (He is) the top Iraqi adviser to Jay Garner”. [7]



Oil Firms Wait as Iraq Crisis Unfolds




“In recent years, seeking to curry favor, Hussein has given huge contracts to oil firms from France, Russia and China, which all have veto power in the Security Council....The French oil giant TotalFinaElf has the largest position in Iraq, with exclusive negotiating rights to develop Majnoon... Moscow has a $3.5 billion, 23-year agreement for several huge Iraqi fields that gives a lead position to a Russian oil consortium led by LukOil... Iraqi opposition leaders suggest that unless France, Russia and China support the U.S. line in the Security Council, their oil companies may find themselves blacklisted. ‘We will examine all the contracts that Saddam Hussein has made, and we will cancel all those that are not in the interest of the Iraqi people and will reopen bidding on them,’ said Faisal Qaragholi, operations officer of the Iraqi National Congress (below), the opposition coalition based in London that plays a central role in the American anti-Hussein strategy. Ahmed Chalabi, the INC leader, has gone even further, proposing the creation of consortium of American companies to develop Iraq's oil fields.” [8]


“Attacking Iraq is the lynchpin in the scheme for world dominance. Bush, Colin Powell, and others in the administration have said the assault will begin within the next few weeks, no matter what the UN does. In fact, it probably will work to Washington's advantage to act without the UN as this will eliminate the necessity of making deals with France and Russia for sharing the spoils in order to win their votes in the Security Council.” [9]



Office of Special Plans




“The Office of Special Plans (OSP) was created by Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld to help create a case to invade Iraq. OSP evolved from the Northern Gulf Affairs Office, which fell under the Pentagon's Near East and South Asia policy office. It was renamed and expanded to the Office of Special Plans in October 2002 to handle prewar and postwar planning. The name change was done to ‘mask’ its true mission.... Due to ever increasing criticism... the Pentagon changed the name of OSP back to its original name, Northern Gulf Affairs Office in July of 2003.. Leadership: Paul Wolfowitz, OSP architect Douglas Jay Feith, Undersecretary of Defense (OSP reports to); Steven A. Cambone, Undersecretary of Defense for Intelligence; Abram N. Shulsky, Director of Office of Special Plans’ William Luti, Under Secretary of Defense who ‘oversees the OSP’. “Air Force Lt. Colonel Karen Kwiatkowski, who worked in the Pentagon until her retirement, was with the Office of Special Plans: She described the activities of Rumsfeld's Office of Special Plans as, ‘A subversion of constitutional limits on executive power and a co-optation through deceit of a large segment of the Congress.’”.. [10]


"‘They surveyed data and picked out what they liked,’ said Gregory Thielmann, a senior official in the state department's intelligence bureau until his retirement in September. ‘The whole thing was bizarre. The secretary of defence had this huge defence intelligence agency, and he went around it.’... ‘They were a pretty shadowy presence,’ Mr Thielmann said. ‘Normally when you compile an intelligence document, all the agencies get together to discuss it. The OSP was never present at any of the meetings I attended.’... It also forged close ties to a parallel, ad hoc intelligence operation inside Ariel Sharon's office in Israel specifically to bypass Mossad and provide the Bush administration with more alarmist reports on Saddam's Iraq than Mossad was prepared to authorise.” [11]


”Patrick Lang, a former director of Middle East analysis at the Defense Intelligence Agency, said in an interview with the New Yorker magazine in May that the Office of Special Plans ‘started picking out things that supported their thesis and stringing them into arguments that they could use with the President. It’s not intelligence. It’s political propaganda.’..Lang said the CIA and Office of Special Plans often clashed on the accuracy of intelligence information provided to the White House by Wolfowitz.” [12]


“In cases where the CIA's intelligence wasn't rewritten the Office of Special Plans provided the White House with questionable intelligence it gathered from Iraqi exiles from the Iraqi National Congress, a group headed by Ahmad Chalabi, a person whom the CIA has publicly said is unreliable, the CIA agents said.” [13]



Iraqi National Congress




“Created in June 1992 to provide an umbrella for the disputing opposition factions, based on the Joint Action Committee created by Damascus in December 1990”..... “Founding conference comprised of 160 delegates in Vienna... This assembly was expanded to a meeting of 234 representatives of Iraqi opposition groups in Salahuddin, Iraqi Kurdistan on 27 Oct 92...Initially received the affiliation of 19 opposition groups, and the support of the CIA, with the Rendon Group (a Washington-based public relations firm) co-ordinating its actions (& reportedly even choosing its name). Conceived and led by Ahmad Chalabi (a Shi‘a Muslim who left Iraq in 1958 and Amman in 1989:...Chalabi was the president of the executive council...External base in London.. .Funded by the US from its inception, reportedly receiving over $100 million in the first half of the 1990s; overtly funded after the US Congress passed the Iraq Liberation Act 1998, which granted the opposition $97 million for military equipment, Pentagon training and facilities (and $2 million in broadcasting funds). Was funded for activities inside Iraq before Aug 96, and again from Feb 01. Is currently receiving an annual budget of $8 million. Retains support of the Pentagon and the US presidency (Dick Cheney is a long-time supporter) ...Recruited a paramilitary force (originally called the Iraq Liberation Army) to serve in northern Iraq, under the sponsorship of the US Dept of Defense. For this purpose, presented a list of 4000 recruits to Pentagon officials, of whom 1000 were selected on 17 Dec 02 to be given military training in Hungary with the U.S. Army's European Command, to provide the basis of a new Iraqi national army. The number of those selected rose to 3000 in Jan 03, when 4-week training began at Taszar air base, Hungary (‘Camp Freedom’); however, only approx 100 were selected to be in what was now named the ‘Free Iraqi Forces’ (FIF), with US forces during the invasion of Iraq, serving as 'attachees' or 'augmentees' to liaise with the population....London

office is headed by Faisal Qaragholi, a petroleum engineer who openly favours a constitutional monarchy. Washington director is Intifadh K. Qanbar, who has built up links with the Zionist lobby groups,” [14]



Iraqi National Accord





“Created in late 1990, on the initiative of Saudi Prince Turki ibn Faysal, with the support of the CIA, and Jordanian and British agencies. Largely made up of Ba‘athists and former military officers who oppose Saddam Hussein's leadership; main constituency is Sunni Arabs in central Iraq. Leaders .. include.. Dr Iyad Alawi & Gen. Adnan Nuri (formerly of the Republican Guard, who secured funding from the CIA in 1992)....Arranged bomb blasts in Iraq from 1994 to demonstrate its credibility: included the bombing of a Baghdad cinema, which killed civilians; and outside Ba‘th newspaper offices. Abu Amneh al-Khadami, who claims to have organised the bombings, stated in January 1996 that these bombings were carried out to impress the CIA... It seems to have had a significant role in coopting members of the Iraqi military, including during the invasion: Alawi, Shahwani and Sa'd al-Janabi (an Iraqi-American businessman who left Iraq in 1995, reportedly working for the US government and leading the ‘Iraqi Republican Group’), had leading roles.... Main base is in Amman (established in Feb 96).” [15]



Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution in Iraq




“The most prominent Shi‘a political grouping, with its main constituency in Southern Iraq and its base in Tehran. Was established on 17 November 1982 with the support of Iran and was led by Muhammad Baqr al-Hakim... Hakim was named by Ayatollah Khomeini as the head of an Islamic Republic of Iraq. From its inception, it has purported to represent all the Muslims of Iraq (including the Sunnis), and has portrayed Iran as the foundation of the World Islamic revolution; ... SCIRI was created to act as a provisional government for Basra in the event of its capture... suspended participation in the INC from 1999...Was selected by the US for funding through the Iraq Liberation Act of 1998, an offer which it refused....voiced opposition to a US invasion of Iraq, arguing that this would cause unnecessary suffering & lead to a US occupation of the country. However, with Iranian permission, continues contacts with US, with a delegation headed by 'Abd al-Aziz al-Hakim (head of SCIRI's military wing and deputy leader; Muhammad Baqr's younger brother) attending the Washington meeting on 9 Aug 02...Hakim holds a meeting with Chalabi in Tehran on 9 Dec 02. However, problems arose in Jan 03, when the US made it clear that it envisaged a longer term military occupation of Iraq; this was denounced by SCIRI..... SCIRI now strongly supports the end to the US military presence in Iraq immediately, and argues that an Islamic republic will be installed through the majority support of the people after an intermediate stage....It opened an office in Washington in late 2002....Nevertheless, SCIRI accepted a place on the Governing Council. Muhammad Baqr al-Hakim was assassinated in the Najaf bombing of 29 August 2003.”. [16]



Kurdistan Democratic Party




“Historically, the main Kurdish party in Northern Iraq; led at present by Mas'ud Barzani. Established by Mullah Mustafa Barzani in Tehran in December 1945...Participated in the Vienna establishment of the INC (above), and became a main player within it.... Has sought to build better relations with Iran, most clearly with 10-day visit of high-ranking KDP delegation to Iran in Sept 02, in which an agreement was made with SCIRI to coordinate on military and political matters and has promoted SCIRI's role to Washington. It has taken a full role in the new governing arrangements, with Mas'ud Barzani holding a position on the Governing Council.”. [17]



Patriotic Union of Kurdistan




“Formed in March 1975"... Barham Salih, prime minister of Sulaymaniyyah governate since Feb ‘01, was “PUK representative in Washington from early 1990s, and a long-standing supporter of close relations with the US; previously an engineering consultant in the UK, and PUK spokesman in London.... From May 03, it has begun work on 3 oil development projects, in collaboration with the US and Turkish companies, in NE Iraq. ... Other leaders include Muhammad Sabir Ismail (founder member; a nuclear physicist by training; rep in France from 1993-01), who has been the PUK's representative to the US from 2001.” [18]



Office of Reconstruction & Humanitarian Assistance (for postwar Iraq)




“The US-British invasion to disarm and topple the regime of Saddam Hussein began on 20 Mar 2003. On 9 Apr advancing US troops took control of central Baghdad, marking the collapse of the regime but not yet the end of the war (which was announced by president George Bush on 2 May). A power vacuum existed de facto at least to the installation on Jul 13 by the occupant

forces of a 25-member Iraq Governing Council (see below), which acts as the first post-Saddam national ruling institution....The ORHA is an agency created on 20 Jan (‘03) by presidential directive, organized within the US Defence Department and put under military command of the USCENTCOM, whose commander-in-chief have been Gen. Tommy Franks and, from 7 Jul 2003, Gen. John Abizaid. The first head of the ORHA, retired US Gen. Jay Garner, acted as top administrator of the occupied Iraq from his arrival to Baghdad on 21 Apr.... On 6 May 2003 president Bush appointed retired diplomat Paul Bremer as his special envoy to Iraq, making him the senior civilian in charge of rebuilding the country's Government and infrastructure.”... Paul Bremer takes over from Garner on 12 May.. “as head of the so-called ‘Coalition Provisional Authority’.” ... “The CPA officially took over from the ORHA, assuming it on 1 Jun. Bremer does not report to the USCENTCOM but to the White House through the Defence Secretary.” [19] ...(It can safely be assumed that the title ‘Office of Reconstruction & Humanitarian Assistance’ was so flagrantly a misnomer that the Administration was quick to change it to the safer ‘Coalition Provisional Authority’!) OHRA was given the authority/responsibility to reconstruct Iraq’s damaged infrastructure (including the crucial oilfields), a result of the invasion by the ‘coalition’. This task was contracted out to appropriate American corporations, among whom were the (inevitable) Bechtel and Brown & Root (KBR)... “Paul Bremer III and the 1,000-person Office of Reconstruction & Humanitarian Assistance depend on the company for food and shelter, as do at least 100,000 of the U.S. troops stationed in Iraq. In addition, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers turned to KBR and KBR alone to help repair damaged oil wells and pipelines... For its work in support of the invasions of Iraq and Afghanistan, KBR has billed the U.S. government about $950 million for work completed under contracts capped at $8.2 billion. At the same time, KBR is in line to earn tens of millions of dollars more to maintain the archipelago of U.S. military bases that now arcs from the Balkans south to the Horn of Africa and east to Afghanistan and Kyrgyzstan. Closer to home, KBR built the detention camps in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba,.... All in all, no corporation has played as central a role in America's global anti-terrorism campaign -- or profited as handsomely from it -- as KBR”. [20]



“Baghdad fell to coalition forces on April 9. In more than a month since then, however, the Office of Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance has struggled to gain traction... Bechtel, Kellogg Brown & Root and other private-sector contractors were equally slow off the mark.... Reports also cast the delay as the result of a spitting match between Don Rumsfeld’s Defense Dept. and Colin Powell’s State Dept.” [21]



Coalition Provisional Authority




“Paul Bremer, a former US diplomat and terrorism expert, will be Iraq's civilian administrator... The appointment is seen in Washington as a victory for the secretary of state, Colin Powell, in his battle with the Pentagon for control of Iraq's future...Mr Bremer, who was Ronald Reagan's adviser on counter- terrorism and now runs a crisis consultancy (Marsh Crisis Consulting), will oversee the Pentagon's man in Baghdad, the retired general Jay Garner... He (Bremer) is reputed to be a consummate diplomat, having served 23 years in the state department. He then worked in Henry Kissinger's global consulting practice before setting up his own business in 2001...Gen Garner, a personal friend of the defence secretary, Donald Rumsfeld, is controversial because of his links to the arms industry and his public statements in support of Ariel Sharon's government in Israel.” [22]



Iraq's Governing Council




“On 13 July 2003, the Governing Council of Iraq was inaugurated. Its members have been appointed by the Coalition Provisional Authority (above). According to the text of the authorities and responsibilities of the Council, its activities will include appointing interim ministers, working with the CPA on policy and budgets, and establishing procedures to write a new constitution... Thirteen members of the Council are Shi'a (of whom 5 or 6 are Islamists), five are Kurdish (of whom 1 or 2 are Islamists), five are Sunni Arabs (of whom at least one is an Islamist), one is Christian and one is Turkoman. Twenty-two are male, three are female. At least 9 of the 18 Arab members of the Council have not been based in south-centre Iraq in the period since 1991. At least 8 of the 9 members of the rotating presidency were not based in south-centre Iraq over the 1991-2003 period...  On 30 July, the Council decided (by a vote of 20-5) that it would have a rotating presidency among 9 of its members with each member serving as president for one month at a time.” [23]



United Nations




UN Security Council Resolution 1483 22nd May 2003... “Security Council lifts Sanctions on Iraq, Approves UN role, calls for appointment of Secretary-General's Special Representative.. by a vote of 14 in favour, with Syria not participating in the voting... “Annan dispatched SergioViera de Mello to work with the US colonial governor Bremer and he was a brilliant political success in terms that were advantageous to US colonial power. Viera de Mello's UN mission was to collaborate with Bremer and directed toward creating an advisory junta (Interim Iraqi National Council) that would provide a figleaf for US colonial control... In effect de Mello organized a powerless collection of self-appointed elites who had no credibility in Iraq or legitimacy among the Iraqi populace, to serve as window dressing for US colonial rule... Denis Halliday, the former UN Assistant Secretary General and UN Humanitarian Co-ordinator in Iraq recently stated that the bombing of the UN in Iraq was payback for collusion with the US. On August 24, 2003 in an interview with The Sunday Herald (Scotland) he noted that ‘further collaboration’ between the UN and the US and Britain ‘would be a disaster for the United Nations as it would be sucked into supporting the illegal occupation of Iraq. The UN has been drawn into being an arm of the US - a division of the State Department. Kofi Annan was appointed and supported by the US and that has corrupted the independence of the UN... While the Iraqis suffer from 80% unemployment and go without clean water, food and electricity, high UN officials draw salaries between $80,000 to $150,000 a year, are chauffeured in luxury cars and SUV's, work in air conditioned offices and dine on fresh imported food in comfortable apartments or villas - enjoying the best of colonial life’”. [24]



The above reveals certain aspects of behaviour that bring words to the tongue, such as ‘double-speak’, ‘hidden agendas’ - but, more crucially, ‘stupidity-based-on-arrogance’. Stupidity for not looking at the real crux of the problem which lies on their very doorstep - and which is the cause of today’s ‘global problems’- namely, capitalism.



Endnotes

[1] http://www.rense.com/general31/cyc.htm.

[2] www.globalresearch.ca/articles/TAL302A.html (“War for World Dominance”

by Karen Talbot)

[3] http://www.disinfopedia.org/wiki.phtml?title=Shock_and_awe

(‘Disinfopedia’, the encyclopedia of propaganda)

[4] Published on Sunday, July 6, 2003 by the New York Times

[5] http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0722-11.htm. (July 22, 2003 by

Agence France Presse)

[6] “The Conspirators: Secrets of an Iran Contra Insider” by Al Martin

[7] http://www.middleeastreference.org.uk/irdc.html

[8]

http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/09/29/MN116803.DTL

(Robert Collier September 29, 2002 San Francisco Chronicle.

[9] Karen Talbot op.cit.

[10] http://www.disinfopedia.org/osp

[11] “The spies who pushed for war”By Julian Borger The Guardian..July 17,

2003

[12] http://www.nthposition.com/politics_leopold2.html

[13] http://www.antiwar.com/orig/leopold11.html.

[14] http://www.middleeastreference.org.uk/iraqiopposition.html#icp

[15] ibid.

[16] ibid.

[17] ibid.

[18] ibid.

[19] http://www.terra.es/personal2/monolith/iraq.html

[20] http://www.ocnus.net/artman/publish/article_7033.shtml.

[21] http://enr.construction.com/opinions/editorials/archives/030519.asp.

[22] Julian Borger ‘The Guardian’ May 2 2003

[23] http://www.middleeastreference.org.uk/iraqgc.html

[24] http://globalresearch.ca/articles/PET309A.html